What I want to find out
I want to find out the types of camera shots and how they can be used for different purposes. I am going to particularly focus on camera movement and what effect it creates and how it helps to immerse the viewer in the narrative.
How am I going to find it out
I have found some websites that have helped me further my understanding of different types of camera movement. I have checked the sources and they are reliable and can not be edited by anyone.
Kyle Cassidy. 2009. Camera Movement Techniques – Tilt, Pan, Zoom, Pedestal, Dolly and Truck. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.videomaker.com/article/c10/14221-camera-movement-techniques-tilt-pan-zoom-pedestal-dolly-and-truck. [Accessed 10 October 2016].
MediaCollege.com. no date. Camera Moves. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mediacollege.com/video/shots/movement.html. [Accessed 10 October 2016].
Gabe Moura. 2014. Camera Moves. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.elementsofcinema.com/cinematography/camera-movement/. [Accessed 10 October 2016].
What I found out
I found out different types of shots such as Dolly, Truck and Pedestal. I also found out different camera positions like an Arial shot and a Crane shot.
Tilt is when the camera tilts up and down. The camera stays in a fixed position. It is like nodding your head. Tilting is used a lot to show the scale of tall objects like a skyscraper or a character.
Dolly is like zooming apart from it is moving the camera. It is moving the camera forwards and backwards. Dollying is used when a subject moves towards or away from the camera. Depending on the budget of the film dollying is done by mounting a camera on some tracks. It can also be done with a shopping cart if you are on a low budget.
Pan is where the camera stays in a fixed position but the lens moves left and right. It is usually used to track objects such as a car going by.
Trucking is the movement of a camera left or right. It is similar to dollying.
Rolling is when the camera is tilted left or right. It is a circular motion and can show confusion. Rolling can also be used in action sequences like in
Booming is the movement of the camera up and down while the camera angle stays the same.
An Ariel shot is when the camera is attached to a helicopter or a drone. They are commonly used for establishing shots. Arial shots used to only be done by big budget film company’s as they required a helicopter. Now that drones have become widely available and some drones can capture quality as good as cameras mounted on helicopters these establishing shots are appearing in low budget films. Drones also have the advantage of being small and being able to fit through places that helicopters couldn’t.
Crane shots consist of a camera being mounted to a crane. This crane can get higher than handheld cameras or tripod mounted cameras. It can also get lower than helicopters or drones. Is some instances these cranes are attached to cars in order to use them for high up trucking. They used cameras mounted to cranes on cars to film Fast and Furious 7 in order to keep with the fast moving cars.
Alex Petifer. 2016. Furious 7 Behind the Scenes Part 4. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdA56WtY7fE. [Accessed 10 October 2016].
Dolly Counter Zoom
Dolly counter zoom is where the camera dollies in or out and the zoom adjusts to keep the subject the same size. For example, in Jaws, the camera dollies towards the subject and the camera zooms out to counter the dolly. The subject is kept the same size throughout and this gives the effect of the background warping. It creates an effect of realisation or fright.
mrsplatterbrains. 2010. dolly zoom (Jaws). [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NB4bikrNzMk. [Accessed 10 October 2016].
The diagram below is wrong. Dolly and truck are in the wrong places. This was the best diagram I could find to illustrate all the different camera movements.
Isaac Kerlow. no date. Elements of Cinematography: Camera. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.utdallas.edu/atec/midori/Handouts/camera_files/camera_moves.jpg. [Accessed 12 October 2016].
sabah27. 2012. Shot sizes/ Camera angles/ Camera movement . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/sabah27/shot-sizes-camera-angles-camera-movement. [Accessed 12 October 2016].